Acquired tracheomalacia is very uncommon at any age. It occurs when normal cartilage in the wall of the windpipe begins to break down.
This form of tracheomalacia may result:
When large blood vessels put pressure on the airway
As a complication after surgery to repair birth defects in the windpipe and esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach)
After having a breathing tube or trachea tube (tracheostomy) for a long time
Symptoms of tracheomalacia include:
Breathing problems that get worse with coughing, crying, or upper respiratory infections, such as a cold
Breathing noises that may change when body position changes, and improve during sleep
Rattling, noisy breaths
Exams and Tests
A physical examination confirms the symptoms. A chest x-ray may show narrowing of the trachea when breathing out. Even if the x-ray is normal, it is needed to rule out other problems.
A procedure called a laryngoscopy is used to diagnose the condition. This procedure allows the otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat doctor, or ENT) to see the structure of the airway and determine how severe the problem is.
Adults who develop tracheomalacia after being on a breathing machine often have serious lung problems.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you or your child breathes in an abnormal way. Tracheomalacia can become an urgent or emergency condition.
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Nelson M, Green G, Ohye RG. Pediatric tracheal anomalies. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap 206.
Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.