Drug overdose (caffeine, amphetamines, or other stimulants)
Lack of sleep
Drug side effect (such as from diuretics, corticosteroids, or estrogens)
Exercise (twitching is seen after exercise)
Lack of nutrients in the diet (deficiency)
Medical conditions that cause metabolic disorders, including low potassium, and kidney disease/uremia
Twitches not caused by disease or disorders (benign twitches), often affecting the eyelids, calf, or thumb. These twitches are normal and quite common, and are often triggered by stress or anxiety. These twitches can come and go, and usually do not last for more than a few days.
Nervous system conditions that can cause muscle twitching include:
Griggs RC, Jozefowicz RF, Aminoff MJ. Approach to the patient with neurologic disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 403.
Joseph V. Campellone, M.D., Division of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.