Shortness of breath; Breathlessness; Difficulty breathing; Dyspnea
There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people feel breathless with only mild exercise (for example, climbing stairs), even though they do not have a medical condition. Others may have advanced lung disease but may never feel short of breath.
Wheezing is one form of breathing difficulty in which you make a high-pitched sound when you breathe out.
Shortness of breath has many different causes. For example, heart disease can cause breathlessness if your heart is unable to pump enough blood to supply oxygen to your body. If your brain, muscles, or other body organs do not get enough oxygen, a sense of breathlessness may occur.
Breathing difficulty may also be due to problems with the lungs, airways, or other health problems.
Sometimes, mild breathing difficulty may be normal and is not a cause for concern. A very stuffy nose is one example. Strenuous exercise, especially when you do not exercise often, is another example.
If breathing difficulty is new or is getting worse, it may be due to a serious problem. Though many causes are not dangerous and are easily treated, call your health care provider for any breathing difficulty.
If you are being treated for a long-term problem with your lungs or heart, follow your provider's directions to help with that problem.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if:
Breathing difficulty comes on suddenly or seriously interferes with your breathing
Someone completely stops breathing
See your provider if any of the following occur with breathing difficulties:
Chest discomfort, pain, or pressure. These are symptoms of angina.
Shortness of breath after only slight activity or while at rest
Shortness of breath that wakes you up at night or requires you to sleep propped up to breathe
Tightness in the throat or a barking, croupy cough
You have breathed in or choked on an object (foreign object aspiration or ingestion)
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
The health care provider will examine you and ask about your medical history and symptoms:
How long have you had breathing difficulty? Did it start suddenly? Has it gotten worse recently?
Is there a sequence of separate episodes? How long does each last, and does each episode have a similar pattern?
If the breathing difficulty is severe, you may need to go to a hospital. You may receive medicines to treat the cause of breathing difficulty.
If your blood oxygen level is very low, you may need oxygen.
Kraft M. Approach to the patient with respiratory disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 83.
Schwartzstein RM, Adams L. Dyspnea. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 29.
Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, MHS, Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.