Sodium bisulfate is a dry acid that may be harmful if swallowed in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate.
This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.
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Note: This list may not be all inclusive.
Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include:
Burning pain in the mouth
Chest pain from burns of the esophagus (swallowing tube)
Severe low blood pressure (shock) causing weakness
If the chemical touches your skin, symptoms may include:
Painful, red skin
If it gets in your eyes, you may have:
Eye redness and tearing
Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional.
If the chemical is swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. DO NOT give water or milk if the person is having symptoms (such as vomiting, convulsions, or a decreased level of alertness) that make it hard to swallow.
If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes.
If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.
Before Calling Emergency
The following information is helpful for emergency assistance:
Person's age, weight, and condition
Name of the product (ingredients and strengths, if known)
Time it was swallowed
However, DO NOT delay calling for help if this information is not immediately available.
In the United States, call 1-800-222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center. This hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.
This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. You can call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
What to Expect at the Emergency Room
The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. The person may receive:
Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation),and ventilator (breathing machine)
Blood and urine tests
Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus (foodpipe) and the stomach (endoscopy)
EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing)
Fluids through the vein (intravenous or IV)
Medicines to treat symptoms
For skin exposure, treatment may include:
Irrigation (washing of the skin), perhaps every few hours for several days
Skin debridement (surgical removal of burned skin)
Transfer to a hospital that specializes in burn care
Hospital admission may be necessary to continue treatment. Surgery may be required if the esophagus, stomach or intestine have developed holes (perforation) from exposure to the acid.
How well a person does depends on how rapidly the sodium bisulfate was diluted and neutralized. There is a good chance of recovery if proper treatment is given soon after the poison was swallowed. Without prompt treatment, extensive damage to the mouth, throat, eyes, lungs, esophagus, nose, and stomach are possible, depending on how exposure occurred.
Damage to the esophagus may occur as late as 2 to 3 weeks after swallowing the poison. Death may occur up to 1 month or longer after swallowing the poison. Those who recover may have continued stomach or esophagus problems.
Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 153.
Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.