During the first 4 to 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. Infant formulas include powders, concentrated liquids, and ready-to-use forms.
Formula feeding; Bottle feeding
There are different formulas available for infants younger than 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk. While there are some differences, infant formulas sold in the United States have all the nutrients babies need to grow and thrive.
TYPES OF FORMULAS
Babies need iron in their diet. It's best to use a formula fortified with iron, unless your child's doctor says not to.
Standard cow's milk-based formulas:
Almost all babies do well on cow's milk-based formulas.
These formulas are made with cow's milk protein that has been changed to be more like breast milk. They contain lactose (a type of sugar in milk) and minerals from the cow's milk.
Vegetable oils, plus other minerals and vitamins are also in the formula.
Fussiness and colic are common problems for all babies. Most of the time, cow's milk formulas are not the cause of these symptoms. This means that you likely do not need to switch to a different formula if your baby is fussy. If you're not sure, talk with your infant's doctor.
These formulas are made using soy proteins. They do not contain lactose.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) suggests using cow's milk-based formulas when possible rather than soy-based formulas.
For parents who do not want their child to eat animal protein, the AAP recommends breastfeeding. Soy-based formulas are also an option.
Soy-based formulas have NOT been proven to help with milk allergies or colic. Babies who are allergic to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk.
Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia, a rare condition. These formulas can also be used for babies who can't digest lactose, which is uncommon in children younger than 12 months.
Ready-to-use. Do not need to add water; convenient, but cost more.
Concentrated liquid formulas. Need to be mixed with water, cost less.
Powdered formulas. Must be mixed with water, cost the least.
The AAP recommends that all infants be fed breast milk or iron-fortified formula for at least 12 months.
Your baby will have a slightly different feeding pattern depending on whether she is breastfed or formula fed.
In general, breastfed babies tend to eat more often.
Formula-fed babies may need to eat about 6 to 8 times per day.
Start newborns with 2 to 3 ounces of formula per feeding (for a total of 16 to 24 ounces per day).
As with breastfeeding, the number of feedings will decrease as the baby gets older, but the amount of formula will increase to approximately 6 to 8 ounces per feeding.
At 4 to 6 months of age, an infant should be consuming 28 to 45 ounces of formula and is often ready to start the transition to solid foods.
Infant formula can be used until a child is 1 year old. The AAP does not recommend regular cow's milk for children under 1 year old. After 1 year, the child should only get whole milk, not skim or reduced-fat milk.
Standard formulas contain 20 Kcal/ounce and 0.45 grams of protein/ounce. Formulas based on cow's milk are appropriate for most full-term and preterm infants.
Infants who drink enough formula and are gaining weight usually do not need extra vitamins or minerals. Your doctor or nurse may prescribe extra fluoride if the formula is being made with water that has not been fluorinated.
Stettler N, Bhatia J, Parish A, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 42.
Liora C Adler, MD, Pediatric ER, Joe DiMaggio Childeren’s Hospital, Hollywood, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.