Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD), is one form of dementia. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.
Senile dementia - Alzheimer type (SDAT); SDAT
The exact cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) is not known. Research shows that certain changes in the brain lead to AD developing.
You are more likely to get AD if you:
Are older. But developing AD is not a part of normal aging.
Have a close relative, such as a brother, sister, or parent, with AD.
Have certain genes linked to AD.
The following may also increase the risk:
Having heart and blood vessel problems due to, for example, high cholesterol
History of head trauma
There are two types of AD:
Early onset AD: Symptoms appear before age 60. This type is much less common than late onset. It tends to get worse quickly. Early onset disease can run in families. Several genes have been identified.
Late onset AD: This is the most common type. It occurs in people age 60 and older. It may run in some families, but the role of genes is less clear.
AD symptoms include difficulty with many areas of mental function, including:
Emotional behavior or personality
Thinking and judgment (cognitive skills)
AD usually first appears as forgetfulness.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the stage between normal forgetfulness due to aging, and the development of AD. People with MCI have mild problems with thinking and memory that do not interfere with daily activities. They are often aware of the forgetfulness. Not everyone with MCI develops AD.
Symptoms of MCI include:
Difficulty performing more than one task at a time
Difficulty solving problems
Forgetting recent events or conversations
Taking longer to perform more difficult activities
Early symptoms of AD can include:
Difficulty performing tasks that take some thought, but used to come easily, such as balancing a checkbook, playing complex games (such as bridge), and learning new information or routines
Getting lost on familiar routes
Language problems, such as trouble finding the name of familiar objects
Losing interest in things previously enjoyed, flat mood
Personality changes and loss of social skills
As AD becomes worse, symptoms are more obvious and interfere with the ability to take care of oneself. Symptoms may include:
Change in sleep patterns, often waking up at night
Delusions, depression, agitation
Difficulty doing basic tasks, such as preparing meals, choosing proper clothing, and driving
Difficulty reading or writing
Forgetting details about current events
Forgetting events in one's life history, losing self-awareness
CT or MRI of the brain may be done to look for other causes of dementia, such as a brain tumor or stroke.
The only way to know for certain that someone has AD is to examine a sample of their brain tissue after death.
There is no cure for AD. The goals of treatment are:
Slow the progression of the disease (although this is difficult to do)
Manage symptoms, such as behavior problems, confusion, and sleep problems
Change the home environment to make daily activities
Support family members and other caregivers
Medicines are used to:
Slow the rate at which symptoms worsen, though benefit with these drugs may be small
Control problems with behavior, such as loss of judgment or confusion
Before using these medicines, ask the doctor or nurse:
What are the side effects? Is the medicine worth the risk?
When is the best time, if any, to use these medicines?
Do medicines for other health problems need to be changed or stopped?
Having Alzheimer disease or caring for a person with the condition may be a challenge. You can ease the stress of illness by seeking support through AD resources. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.
How quickly AD gets worse is different for each person. If AD develops quickly, it is more likely to worsen quickly.
Persons with AD often die earlier than normal, although a patient may live anywhere from 3 to 20 years after diagnosis.
Families will likely need to plan for their loved one's future care.
The final phase of the disease may last from a few months to several years. During that time, the patient becomes totally disabled. Death usually occurs from an infection or organ failure.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call the health care provider if:
AD symptoms develop or a person has a sudden change in mental status
The condition of a person with AD gets worse
You are unable to care for a person with AD at home
Although there is no proven way to prevent AD, there are some measures that may help prevent or slow the onset of Alzheimer disease.
These include keeping a low-fat diet and eating foods high in omega-3 fatty acids. Getting physical exercise and staying mentally and socially active also seem to help.
Alzheimer's Association. 2013 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures. Washington, DC: Alzheimer's Association. Accessed October 7, 2013.
Bayer A. Presentation and clinical management of dementia. In: Fillit HM, Rockwood K, Woodhouse K, eds. Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA; 2010:chap 52.
Camicioli R, Rockwood K. Dementia diagnosis. In: Fillit HM, Rockwood K, Woodhouse K, eds. Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA; 2010:chap 51.
Joseph V. Campellone, MD, Department of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.