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Breastfeeding - skin and nipple changes

Alternate Names

Inverted nipple; Nipple discharge


Learn about skin and nipple changes in the breast so you know when to see your health care provider.

Notice Changes in Your Breasts and Nipples

Changes in your breasts and nipples may include:

  • Inverted nipples. This is normal if your nipples have always been indented inward and can easily point out when you touch them. If your nipples are pointing in, and this is new, talk to your health care provider right away.
  • Skin puckering or dimpling. This can be caused by scar tissue from surgery or an infection. Often, there is no known reason. See your provider. Most of the time this does not need treatment.
  • Warm to the touch, red, or painful breast. This is caused by an infection in your breast. See your provider for treatment.
  • Scaly, flaking, itchy skin. This is usually eczema or a bacterial or fungal infection. See your provider for treatment. Flaking, scaly, itchy nipples can be a sign of Paget's disease. This is a rare form of breast cancer involving the nipple.
  • Thickened skin with large pores. This is called peau d'orange because the skin looks like an orange peel. This can be caused by an infection in your breast or inflammatory breast cancer. See your provider right away.
  • Retracted nipples. Your nipple was raised above the surface but begins to pull inward and does not come out when stimulated. See your provider if this is new.

Take Care of Your Nipples

Your nipples naturally make a lubricant to prevent drying, cracking, or infections. To keep your nipples healthy:

  • Avoid soaps and harsh washing or drying of your breasts and nipples. This can cause dryness and cracking.
  • Rub a little breast milk on your nipple after feeding to protect it. Keep your nipples dry to prevent cracking and infection.
  • If you have cracked nipples, apply 100% pure lanolin after feedings.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you notice:

  • Your nipple is retracted or pulled in when it was not that way before.
  • Your nipple has changed in shape.
  • Your nipple becomes tender and it is not related to your menstrual cycle.
  • Your nipple has skin changes.
  • You have new nipple discharge.

Your provider will talk to you about your medical history and the recent changes you have noticed in your breasts and nipples. Your provider will also do a breast exam and may suggest that you see a dermatologist or breast specialist.

You may have these tests done:

  • Mammogram (uses x-rays to produce pictures of the breast)
  • Breast ultrasound (uses sound waves to examine the breasts)
  • Breast MRI (uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed pictures of the breast tissue)
  • Biopsy (removal of a small amount of breast tissue to examine it)


Newton ER. Lactation and breastfeeding. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 23.

Review Date: 11/21/2014
Reviewed By: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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