Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that happens during pregnancy. Usually there are no symptoms. But gestational diabetes may:
Cause mild symptoms, such as increased thirst or shakiness. These symptoms are usually not life-threatening to the pregnant woman.
Cause a woman to have a larger baby. This can increase the chance of problems with the delivery.
Cause a higher risk of high blood pressure during pregnancy.
How is it Managed?
Becoming pregnant when you are at your ideal body weight can help lower your chance of getting gestational diabetes. If you are overweight, try to lose weight before pregnancy.
If you do develop gestational diabetes:
A healthy diet can keep your blood sugar controlled and may keep you from needing medicine. Eating healthy can also keep you from gaining too much weight in your pregnancy. Too much weight gain can increase your risk for gestational diabetes.
Your doctor, nurse, or dietitian will create a diet just for you. Your health care provider may ask you to keep track of what you eat.
Exercise will help keep your blood sugar under control. Walking is usually the easiest type of exercise. Try walking 1 to 2 miles at a time, 3 or more times per week. Swimming or other low-impact exercises can work just as well. Ask your provider what type of exercise, and how much, is best for you.
Medicine can help control gestational diabetes. But most women with gestational diabetes will not need diabetes medicines or insulin.
If changing your diet does not control your blood sugar levels, you may need oral medicine (taken by mouth) or insulin therapy (shots).
What Are the Risks of Gestational Diabetes?
Women who follow their treatment plan and keep their blood sugar normal or close to normal during their pregnancy should have a good outcome.
Blood sugar that is too high raises the risks for:
Very small baby (fetal growth restriction) or very large baby (macrosomia)
Difficult labor or cesarean birth (C-section)
Problems with blood sugar or electrolytes in the baby during the first few days after delivery
Checking Your Blood Sugar
You can see how well you are doing by testing your blood sugar level at home. Your doctor may ask you to check your blood sugar several times each day.
The most common way to check is by pricking your finger and drawing a drop of blood. Then, you place the blood drop in a monitor (testing machine) that measures your blood glucose. If the result is too high or too low, you will need to closely monitor your blood sugar level.
Your providers will follow your blood sugar level with you. Make sure you know what your blood sugar level should be.
Managing your blood sugar can seem like a lot of work. But many women are motivated by their desire to make sure both they and their baby have the best possible outcome.
Visits and Tests for You and Your Baby
Your provider will closely check both you and your baby throughout your pregnancy. This will include:
Visits with your provider every week
Ultrasounds that show the size of your baby
A non-stress test that shows whether your baby is doing well
If you need insulin or oral medicine to control your blood sugar, you may need to have labor induced 1 or 2 weeks before your due date.
After Your Delivery
Women with gestational diabetes should be watched closely after giving birth. They should also continue to get checked at future clinic appointments for signs of diabetes.
High blood sugar levels often go back to normal after delivery. Still, many women with gestational diabetes develop diabetes within 5 to 10 years after giving birth. The risk is greater in obese women.
When to Call the Doctor
Call your health care provider for the following diabetes-related problems:
Your baby seems to be moving less in your belly
More thirst than normal
Nausea and vomiting
Landon MB, Catalano PM, Gabbe SG. Diabetes mellitus complicating pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 39.
Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.