Caplan syndrome is caused by breathing in coal mining dust. This causes inflammation and can lead to the formation of many small lumps in the lungs and an airway disease similar to mild asthma.
Some people who have been exposed to coal dust have severe lung scarring that makes it difficult for their lungs to carry oxygen to their bloodstream (called progressive massive fibrosis). People with rheumatoid arthritis do not seem more likely to have this complication.
Caplan syndrome is very rare in the United States.
Your health care provider will take a detailed medical history. It will include questions about your jobs (past and present) and other possible sources of exposure to mining dust. Your provider will also do a physical exam, paying special attention to any joint and skin disease.
There is no specific treatment for Caplan syndrome, other than treating any lung and joint disease.
Attending a support group with people who have the same disease or a similar disease can help you understand your condition better. It can also help you adjust to your treatment and lifestyle changes. Support groups take place online and in person. Ask your provider about a support group that might help you.
Caplan syndrome rarely causes serious breathing trouble or disability due to lung problems.
These complications can occur from Caplan syndrome:
Increased risk for tuberculosis
Scarring in the lungs (progressive massive fibrosis)
Side effects from medicines you take
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call for an appointment with your provider if you have symptoms of Caplan syndrome.
People with rheumatoid arthritis should avoid exposure to coal dust.
Corte TJ, Du Bois RM, Wells AU. Connective tissue diseases. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 65.
Cowie RL, Becklake MR. Pneumoconioses. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 73.
Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, MHS, Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.