Mediastinitis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the chest area between the lungs (mediastinum). This area contains the heart, large blood vessels, windpipe (trachea), food tube (esophagus), thymus gland, lymph nodes, and connective tissues.
Mediastinitis usually results from an infection. It may occur suddenly (acute), or it may develop slowly and get worse over time (chronic). It most often occurs in patients who recently had an upper endoscopy or chest surgery.
Patients may have a tear in their esophagus that causes mediastinitis. Causes of the tear include:
Your health care provider may insert a needle into the area of inflammation and remove a sample to send for gram stain and culture to determine the type of infection.
You may receive antibiotics if you have an infection.
You may need surgery to remove the area of inflammation if the blood vessels, windpipe, or esophagus is blocked.
How well a person does depends on the cause and severity of the mediastinitis.
Mediastinitis after chest surgery is very serious. There is a significant risk of dying from the condition.
Complications include the following:
Spread of the infection to the bloodstream, blood vessels, bones, heart, or lungs
Scarring can be severe, especially when it is caused by chronic mediastinitis. Scarring can interfere with heart or lung function.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Contact your health care provider if you have had open chest surgery and develop:
Drainage from the wound
Shortness of breath
If you have tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, or sarcoidosis and develop any of these symptoms, contact your health care provider right away.
The only way to prevent this condition related to chest surgery is to keep surgical wounds clean and dry after surgery.
Treating tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, or other conditions associated with mediastinitis may prevent this complication.
Celli BR. Diseases of the diaphragm, chest wall, pleura, and mediastinum. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 99.
Park DR, Vallieres E. Pneumomediastinum and mediastinitis. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Martin TR, et al. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 77.
Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.