Gingivitis is a form of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is inflammation and infection that destroys the tissues that support the teeth. This can include the gums, the periodontal ligaments, and the tooth sockets (alveolar bone).
Gingivitis is due to the long-term effects of plaque deposits on your teeth. Plaque is a sticky material made of bacteria, mucus, and food debris that builds up on the exposed parts of the teeth. It is also a major cause of tooth decay.
If you do not remove plaque, it turns into a hard deposit called tartar (or calculus) that becomes trapped at the base of the tooth. Plaque and tartar irritate and inflame the gums. Bacteria and the toxins they produce cause the gums to become infected, swollen, and tender.
The following raise your risk for gingivitis:
Certain infections and body-wide (systemic) diseases
Call your dentist if you have red, swollen gums, especially if you have not had a routine cleaning and exam in the last 6 months.
Good oral hygiene is the best way to prevent gingivitis.
You should brush your teeth at least twice a day. You should floss at least once a day.
Your dentist may recommend brushing and flossing after every meal and at bedtime. Ask your dentist or dental hygienist to show you how to properly brush and floss your teeth.
Your dentist may suggest devices to help remove plaque deposits. These include special toothpicks, toothbrushes, water irrigation, or other devices. You still must brush and floss your teeth regularly.
Antiplaque or antitartar toothpastes or mouth rinses may also be recommended.
Many dentists recommend having teeth professionally cleaned at least every 6 months. Some plaque can be missed, even with careful brushing and flossing at home.
Amsterdam JT. Oral medicine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2013:chap 70.
Chow AW. Infections of the oral cavity, neck, and head. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 60.
Ilona Fotek, DMD, MS, Palm Beach Prosthodontics Dental Associates, West Palm Beach, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.