If an allergy is causing the breathing problem, they might have a rash or swelling of the face, tongue, or throat.
If an injury is causing breathing difficulty, they might be bleeding or have a visible wound.
If someone is having breathing difficulty, call 911 or your local emergency number right away, then:
Check the person's airway, breathing, and pulse. If necessary, begin CPR.
Loosen any tight clothing.
Help the person use any prescribed medicine (an asthma inhaler or home oxygen).
Continue to monitor the person's breathing and pulse until medical help arrives. DO NOT assume that the person's condition is improving if you can no longer hear abnormal breath sounds, such as wheezing.
If there are open wounds in the neck or chest, they must be closed immediately, especially if air bubbles appear in the wound. Bandage such wounds at once.
A "sucking" chest wound allows air to enter the person's chest cavity with each breath. This can cause a collapsed lung. Bandage the wound with plastic wrap, a plastic bag, or gauze pads covered with petroleum jelly, sealing it except for one corner. This allows trapped air to escape from the chest, but it prevents air from entering the chest through the wound.
Give the person food or drink.
Move the person if there has been a chest or airway injury, unless it is absolutely necessary.
Place a pillow under the person's head. This can close the airway.
Wait to see if the person's condition improves before getting medical help. Get help immediately.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call 911 or your local emergency number if you or someone else has any of the symptoms of difficult breathing, in the Symptoms section above.
Also call your health care provider right away if you:
Have a cold or other respiratory infection and are having difficulty breathing
Have a cough that does not go away after 2 or 3 weeks
Are coughing up blood
Are losing weight without meaning to or having night sweats
Cannot get to sleep or wake up at night because of breathing difficulty
Notice it is hard to breathe when doing things that you normally do without breathing difficulty, for example, climbing stairs
Also call your provider if your child has a cough and is making a barking sound.
Some things you can do to help prevent breathing problems:
If you have a history of severe allergic reactions, carry an epinephrine pen and wear a medical alert tag. Your provider will teach you how to use the epinephrine pen.
If you have asthma or allergies, eliminate household allergy triggers like dust mites and mold.
DO NOT smoke, and keep away from secondhand smoke. DO NOT allow smoking in your home.
If you have asthma, see the article on asthma to learn ways to manage it.
Make sure your child gets the whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine.
Make sure your tetanus booster is up to date.
When traveling by airplane, get up and walk around every few hours to avoid forming blood clots in your legs. While seated, do ankle circles and raise and lower your heals, toes, and knees to increase blood flow in your legs. Clots can break off and lodge in your lungs. If traveling by car, stop and get out and walk around regularly.
If you are overweight, lose weight. You are more likely to feel winded if you are overweight. You are also at greater risk for heart disease and heart attack.
Wear a medical alert tag if you have a pre-existing breathing condition, such as asthma.
Thomas SH, Goodloe, JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 60.
Wippold FJ II. Diagnostic imaging of the larynx. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap 106.
Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.